At the end of the lesson, students must be able to:
- Define and explain civic education
- Identify the scope of civic education
- List the objectives of civic education
- Identify the importance of civic education
- List the agencies of civic education
Civic education was coined from citizenship education, which simply means an educational and learning activities specifically meant to create awareness, teach right values, right attitudes and behaviour that are acceptable to the society where individual lives.
It is therefore a types of educational and learning activities to create awareness in students at all levels of education (both informal and formal)
IMPORTANCE OF CIVIC EDUCATION
- To people’s understanding of their civic right and responsibilities as a citizen of a country.
- To create on government duties to the citizens of her nation
- To generate concerns on how civilized society is organized.
SCOPE OF CIVIC EDUCATION
Civic education has no limited scope. It is because it covers all aspects of human lives and activities. It is expected that, in a civilized society, citizens must be dedicated, disciplined, law abiding, have respect for the constituted authority, patriotic, patient, self-reliant, have value, defend the nation etc.
Civic education as a mere practical approach is tending and leaving process because it deals with the right values, attitudes, fundamental human rights, duties and responsibilities of citizens relationship between among citizens of the state and the way government and its agencies work.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF CIVIC EDUCATION
- To teach right attitudes: students must understand what right attitudes and wrong attitudes are. For example laziness, truancy, bad gang, smoking etc. are bad attitudes
- Encouragement of good citizenship: a good citizen is someone who contribute positively towards his/her community growth and national growth.
- Disagreement of bad and unholy behaviour: bad behaviour such as indecent dressing, sagging, cheating in examination, stealing, bad group and other should be discouraged and do away with.
- To teach good leadership and followership: leaders are mirror of the society, a good leader therefore should be someone who seeks at all times and work hard towards solving his/her followers’ problems. A good follower is someone who is hardworking and performs his/her expected duties and obligations to the state and community where he/she resides.
- To encourage the spirit of friendship and cooperation: ‘United we stand, divided we fall’. The spirit of friendship, cooperation, harmonious relationship, religious tolerance among others are keys towards individual, community and national development.
VALUES AND IMPORTANCE OF CIVIC EDUCATION
- Civic education is necessary towards proper upbringing of an individual.
- Civic education is essential for self-reliant, self-growth and indigenous individual.
- It enhances individual growth, thereby encouraging nations development and rapid progress
- It encourages peaceful co-existence among people of diverse nationality like indigent.
- It encourages good leadership and followership.
AGENCIES OF CIVIC EDUCATION
- Family: it is often said that ‘charity begins at home’. Family is the first agent of socialization and the first agent to educate the child on ‘do and don’t in the society. The family is expected to teach the child right values, positive attitudes, hard work, sincerity, faithfulness, thankfulness among others.
- The community members: community members consist of the male and female adults members of the community. They are the best position to further direct the child towards a right direction in the community for stronger development of the community in particular and the nation at large. A well-disciplined and cultured individual is said to be the ‘child of the community’ whereas a failure, uncultured and undisciplined individual belongs to his or her family.
- The religious bodies: the African traditional religion, Islam and Christianity have a major role of morality teaching and training in the society. It is expected that the religious organizations should make man a complete human being. It is a moral obligation of the religious organization initiate children and adults into a religious belief. Therefore, the balance combination of good academic works in schools and sound morals with the fear of God would make a complete man because it is said that ‘the fear of God is beginning of wisdom’.
- The school: schools at all level are designed to teach, train, educate, socialize among other individual to become a complete human being. Schools help to transfer susceptible societal values to learners (both young and adults) through teaching and learning process. The school is the agent of socialization through which the child first acquires organized learning experience.
- The mass media: both print and electronic media are agents of civic education because through various media channels a learner and citizens interacts with the happenings not only in the immediate environment but the global world. In fact the media has made the world a global village. For example on both radio and television stations, scheduled hours for awareness creation are on air.
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
- Explain the meaning of value
- List the types and kinds of values
- Explain the manifestation of values
MEANING OF VALUES
Values can be defined as the worth, merit or esteem which a person, individuals or group of people in the society or community have for an objects or an idea. For example when someone says ‘I value my life’ or ‘I value my certificate’, it means that such person cherishes or loves his life or certificate. Values therefore holds attraction for us and we cherish to possess them.
What has value is actually valuable or good, as opposed to what is regarded as good or valuable. The values are things that have value, things that are good, things that are right, obligatory, beautiful or even true, or even moral values.
KINDS OF VALUES
- Positive value: positive value applies to things or qualities which are good, desirable or worthwhile, for example, a student who respects self, the constituted authority, seniors and even the classmate is said to have positive value. Other positive value include; gratitude, truth telling, hard work, obedience etc.
- Negative value: this is a direct opposite of positive value, this is a bad value, undesirable, unacceptable or worthless value that the society frown at. For example, a disobedient student is said to have negative value. Other negative values are; ingratitude, lying, theft, armed robbery, improper dressing like sagging, fraudulent acts, etc.
- Intrinsic value: something has intrinsic value when it is good or desirable for its own sake and in itself. For example, good music, beautiful flowers, particular dress, type of handset, type of house and other value giving satisfaction to the beholder.
- Instrumental or extrinsic value: this is the value that we attach to an object or something that can be used for achieving another thing. For example, a good knife, a good music, a good handset. Also, drugs can be an instrumental value because prescribed drug cures illness etc.
- Absolute value: they are values that are not conditioned or stick to time, place or circumstance. They are always positive, good and worthwhile. They are always refer to as eternal and universal values, they hold positive and good at all places, circumstances and at all times. Examples of such values are: trust, honesty, hard work, discipline, tolerance, obedience etc.
- Relative value: this type of value depends on time, place or circumstance. This means that situation and current happening will determine the direction of the affairs. For example, killing is bad and it is an act that people frown at, but what of Euthensia (mercy killing) or killing a person to save one’s life. The case of another good example of relative value.
Manifestation of value
All over the world and particularly in Nigeria, what we cherished most are:
- Our life: even a mad man moves away for speedy vehicles on the road and other dangerous object to avoid death. Life is of value in all human societies and even among the lower creature like dog, cow, sheep, cat etc. this is because life has to do with existence and survival. We must therefore not toy with our life.
- Good health: human beings and even the lower animals can exist and survive only with good health. Our life therefore depends on the sanitation habit, proper usage of drugs etc. efforts should be made to shun all acts that can bring about ill health and diseases such as; drug abuse, smoking, drunkenness, addiction and other bad habits. Therefore, whatever actions and behaviour that can promote good health are valued. Health is wealth, an ill health person is close to his/her grave. Efforts therefore should be made to promote good healthy living.
- Being human being is a value: it is often said that ‘man is created in God’s image’. Human being can reason and manipulate his/her environment towards his satisfaction. Man and woman should therefore contribute positively towards making the society a better place to live.
- One’s family is a value: family is where man originated from and the first agent of socialization. Nigerians are proud of their family’s name and hence, they do everything possible not to drag their family name into the mud. In Nigeria society, children who bring disgrace to their family are rejected and disowned. Family name, family history, family status, are cherished and any child who drags the family name into the mud is regarded as’ omoale’ in Yorba land. All other communities in Nigeria have a way of protecting their values and ways of dealing with deviants’ behaviour its members.
At the end of the lesson, students must be able to:
- Identify some emerging issues in Nigeria and global one such as:
- HIV/AIDS: Its meaning, symptoms and the issues of stigmatization
- Youth empowerment and others.
EMERGING ISSUES: HIV/AIDS (MEANING)
HIV stands for human immuno-deficiency virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. People became infected with HIV when the virus enters their body. This happens when a person is exposed to HIV infected body fluids such as blood or sex fluids. AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A syndrome is defined as a sequence of infections. When a person has AIDS, it means his/her immune system has been completely weakened that the body cannot defend itself against any infection. This will lead to sufferings such as Tuberculosis (TB) Pneumonia, persistent diarrhoea etc.
A person with HIV does not show any immediate symptoms. In fact, that person can look and feel healthy for many years. After sometime, the virus begins to destroy the person’s system. Eventually the person begins to develop signs of sickness. These signs result from many different infections, together they are called AIDS. AIDS therefore is the last stage of HIV infection.
Symptoms of AIDS
A person who has reached the AIDS stage of HIV infection often shows a number of these signs of illness;
- Night sweats
- Fever lasting for more than a month
- About 20% weight loss or loss of appetite
- Dry cough lasting for more than a month
- Swelling around the neck, armpit and private part
- Shingles- a small reddish rash all over the slain appearing more than once,
- Oral thrush whitish sports in the mouth
- Itching stain infections.
HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
Sexually transmitted infection (STIs) are infections that spread from one person to another during sex. HIV is one type of sexually transmitted infections, others are; gonorrhoea, syphilis and genital ulcers. Not all STIs have cures. Severe cases are of certain STIs can lead to death. HIV is different from other STIs because it destroys the body’s defence system, presently HIV has no cure or vaccine and it thus lead to premature death. It can also spread through infected blood products and instruments used by an infected person such as razor blade, scissors, clipper, needle etc. it can also be spread from infected mother – to – child particularly during pregnancy, child birth and breast feeding.
PERSON’S HIV STATUS
The major way to know if one has contracted HIV is by taking an approved HIV blood test at a hospital or clinic. One cannot know his/her HIV status by the way one feels. A person with HIV may feel healthy for many years after being infected. But once with HIV virus is inside of the body system, a person can infect others without knowing, this can occur through; unprotected pregnancy, during delivery of the child or breast feeding of a child.
One cannot know his/her HIV status by the way one lives. A person with HIV may look the same or even better than a non- HIV carrier person.
It must be noted and emphasized that only effective way in the world today in knowing once HIV status is by taking an approved HIV tests at a hospital or clinic.
HIV preventive measures
The following are some main ways of preventing the spread of HIV in our community and country. These way often called ‘ABC’ which is summarized thus;
- It stands for complete ABSTINENCE meaning do not engage in sexual act till one is married.
- It stands for be faithful to one partner especially those that are married and in relationship.
- It stands for using condoms. This does not mean that sex is recommended for an unmarried person, it is meant for married people to safeguard unwanted pregnancy and for those who cannot abstain from having sex.
Youth empowerment mean various means and ways of developing the capacity, capability and encouraging the Nigerian youth towards becoming job creators and not necessarily job seekers.
Effort to address Youth empowerment in Nigeria is not the concern of the government alone. This is because if all hands are on deck, the society will be at peace and there will be reduction in the rate of crimes and criminal activities.
AGENTS OF YOUTH EMPOWERMENT IN NIGERIA
The following enhances youth empowerment in Nigeria:
- The schools
Particularly the technical colleges, polytechnics, universities etc. through skill acquisition trainings.
- The national directorate of employment (NDE). This is a government agency responsible for the training of all categories of youth for empowerment and capacity buildings.
- The national agency for poverty eradication programme (NAPEP). This has the major objective of poverty eradication through offering the youths loans for establishment, keke NAPEP for transport, motorbike also for transportation etc.
- The role of non-governmental organization as agent of youth empowerment cannot be overruled. Many local, community and international organizations were found to be helpful towards youth empowerment in Nigeria e.g. Red Cross, Lions’ Club, UNICEF, UNAD among others.
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
- Define citizenship
- List types of laws and right of individuals
- Identify and list the functions and structures of government
- Define nationalism
- List nationalist roles of individuals and group
Origin of citizenship
The history of citizenship dates back to the 19th century. This period also witnessed the origin of nation state. Before the 19th century, member nation state that is citizens were privilege citizens and few people in the society. These few individuals were the rich, elite, educated, nobles and property owners. On the other hands, people of low class or who are socially and economically dependants like; women, children, slaves, etc. were not regarded and recognized as citizens.
The 19th and 20th centuries thus witnessed important period when citizenship was extended to all categories of people in the society. The struggle for citizenship therefore revolved around the struggle for extension of right s to all members of the community. Citizenship therefore is a special status that is given or accorded to individuals by the state where one resides or was born. Those that are not given these status are called aliens. An alien is a person that was not born in a country where he or she resides or not accorded with citizenship status.
A citizen is someone who enjoys full political rights in a state and in return performs certain duties to the state. A citizen therefore is a legal member of a state.
Acquisition of citizen
In the modern society, there are five main ways of acquiring citizenship, these are;
- Citizenship by birth: this is the situation whereby the parents of the person are natives in the country or a person born by citizens of a country. For example; a child born by Nigerian parents automatically becomes a Nigerian by birth.
- Citizenship by registration or marriage: this occurs when Nigerian male marries for example a Briton (a British) woman. The woman automatically becomes a citizen of Nigerian through registration of marriage.
- Citizenship by nationalization: this happens when an alien or a foreigner becomes a citizen of another country having fulfilled and satisfied the countries conditions to acquire the citizen of that country as laid down by the constitution of that country. It is a process by which an individual voluntary changes his/her citizenship of a state to that of another in which he or she resides. Some of the conditions that an alien of another country must fulfil are: as follow;
- Applicant must be an adult acceptable in the community.
- Applicant must be of good character
- Applicant must swear an oath of allegiance
- Applicant must be able and have been contributing to community and national development and growth.
- Applicant must have been residing in a particular community in that country for specific period of time.
- Honorary citizenship: from time to time the government of a country have been honouring distinguished or important person or eminent person with citizenship of that country. For example such icon figures in Nigeria like: Sir Ahmadu Bello, Nnamdi Azikwe, Chief Obafemi Awolowo have been honoured with citizenship of other countries of the world.
- Citizenship by blood ties or decent: citizenship pf a country is also acquired through blood ties. This means that the, fact that a child was born in a particular community in the country does not necessarily confer the status of the citizenship on that person.
DANGERS OF POLITICAL APATHY
Political apathy means the lack of interest in taking active part in the political activities of one’s country either by voting or been voted for. It may also mean the indifference on the part of citizens of a country with regards to their country; for example, politics, elections, public opinions, civic responsibilities etc.
That is, a situation where citizens are generally not interested in the political affairs of their country.
An individual’s political apathy begins with lack of understanding of politics or government to a certain degree and that makes it more difficult for that individual to see the value in universal suffrage, and to see the benefits and costs of new policies that the government places. That makes individual to see it as irrational to gain knowledge, since there would be no benefit. This creates a feedback loop.
In Nigeria, political apathy is a problem, with fewer young adults likely to participate in civic activities. Democracy demands an informed electorate. Citizen who lack adequate knowledge about politics will find it difficult to control public policy in their country.
Effects of political apathy in a country
- Political apathy can bring about stagnation to the development of a nation.
- Political apathy often times prevents government from reflecting on the will of the people in any meaningful way.
- Political apathy of citizens will make it difficult for them to control public policy in their country
- Political apathy will encourage citizen’s manipulation by the elites in a country.
- Political apathy may make citizens sometimes demand policies that contravene their own interest.
Ways of fighting political apathy in the country
- Knowing and defending your right
- Participating in election
- Joining popular organization
PUBLIC SERVICE IN DEMOCRACY
Public service refers to all organization that exist as part of government machinery for implementing policy decisions of government and delivering services that are of value to the citizens.
It may also mean, a body of government departments responsible for implementation of policies and programmes of the government.
It is the administrative unit of the government through which government day to day operations and activities are carried out for smooth operations of the government.
The public service in Nigeria is made up of the following:
- The civil service: this is often referred to as the core-service; and is composed of line- ministries and extra ministerial agencies. For example, we have ministry of agriculture, ministry for education etc.
- The public bureaucracy: the public bureaucracy is composed of an enlarged public service which include the following:
- Service of the state and National assemblies in Nigeria
- The judiciary (i.e. Federal and State Courts)
- The armed forces (i.e. Army, Navy and Air force)
- The police and civil security agencies, i.e., the Nigeria Police Force, and State security Service).
- Paramilitary service (e.g. Nigeria Immigration service, Nigeria Customs service, Nigeria Prisons Service, Nigeria Security and civil defence corps, National Drug law enforcement agency, Federal Road Safety Corps etc.)
- Parastatals and agencies
PRINCIPLES OF THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE
The public service in Nigeria are guided by the following principles which must be maintained in order to enhance its usefulness and performance.
- Political neutrality: a public servant does not become practically involved in partisan politics unless he or she resigns his/her appointment. He/she is expected to serve the government of the day with dedication.
- Impartiality: he/ she is not expected to favour a political party when performing his/her duties.
- Anonymity: they are work behind the glare of public eye.
- Permanence: the public service is essentially a permanent establishment of government.
- Expertise: public servant are usually experts on their various field.
THE PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
This is a commission or body responsible for the employment promotion, discipline, transfer, retirement and dismissal of public servants. This commission is made up of a chairman and some other members who are appointed by the President (as in the case of the Federal Public service) and governor (as in the case of a state public service).
STRUCTURE OR CLASSES OF THE NIGERIA PUBLIC SERVICE
- The administrative class: this is the highest grade of public servants in the public service. It is this class of public servants that has the closest contact with the politicians in advisory and policy making capacity in any ministry and extra ministerial departments of public service.
- The executive class:highlight on civic education